14th International Cocoa Research Conference


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Cocoa Producers' Alliance
National Assembly Complex
Tafawa Balewa Square
P.O. Box 1718
Lagos, Nigeria
234/1-263-5574
234/1-263-5684 (fax)
info@copal-cpa.org

Guidelines To Contributors Of Papers

Table of Contents

Introduction

1.      SCOPE

    1.1 Types of papers

    1.2 Limit of sole or senior authorship

    1.3 Layout of papers

    1.4 Length of papers

      1.4.1 Summary

      1.4.2 Full papers

    1.5 Papers in final form

2.      TITLE

3.      SECTIONAL HEADINGS

4.      FOOTNOTES

5.      SCIENTIFIC NAMES

    5.1 Scientific Names in Latin

    5.2 Trade Names

6.      UNITS OF MEASUREMENT

7.      ABBREVIATIONS

8.      ILLUSTRATIONS

    8.1 Line drawings and graphs

    8.2 Photographs

    8.3 Size

    8.4 Legends

    8.5 General

9.      STATISTICS

10.     TABLES

11.     LITERATURE CITATION

    11.1 Papers from Journals and Bulletins

    11.2 Proceedings of Symposia, Conferences, Workshops, etc.

    11.3 Books

    11.4 Anonymous references

    11.5 Other references

12.     WORKING LANGUAGES

    12.1 Full texts, summaries and discussions

    12.2 Proceedings

13.     ORAL PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION

    13.1 Person authorized to present a paper

    13.2 Method and duration of presentation

    13.3 Word delivery rate

    13.4 Slides

14.     OFFPRINTS                                                                               

15.     POSTER SESSION

        ADDENDA

A.      CLASSIFICATION OF PAPERS

B.      SLIDES                                  

GUIDELINES TO CONTRIBUTORS OF PAPERS

These Guidelines must be followed by authors of papers submitted for presentation at the International Cocoa Research Conferences.  Compliance with them will contribute to the smooth running of the conference, reduce costs, and accelerate the production of the Conference Proceedings.

1.      SCOPE

1.1 Type of Papers

Original scientific contributions, review articles of general scientific interest, dealing with cacao, cocoa products and byproducts as well as articles dealing with cacao extension are welcome.  Such communications should not have been published or presented elsewhere.

1.2 Limit of sole or senior authorship

A participant will be allowed to present up to two papers as a sole author or senior author.  The name of an author could, however, appear as a contributor to other papers.

1.3 Layout of papers

Summaries as well as full papers, figures, and tables must be typed single spacing on A4 paper (21.0 cm x 29.7 cm) with margins of at least 4 cm on the left, 2 cm on the right, 2 cm at the top and 2 cm at the bottom (*).  If A4 paper is not available, foolscap may be used, provided it complies with the specifications.  Papers not typed in accordance with this format risk rejection by the organizers.  A model layout is provided on the ultimate page.

1.4 Length of papers

1.4.1 Summary

Each full paper must include an informative summary of 400 words.  It should contain all essential information regarding objectives, materials and methods, results and conclusions, but excluding figures, sectional headings, graphs, tables and references.

The summary must be carefully prepared as it is the only document considered and discussed by the International Organising Committee.  On the basis of the content of this summary, IOC decides whether a contribution is accepted for:  oral presentation and publication in the Proceedings; for poster exhibit and publication in the Proceedings; for publication in the Proceedings; or not accepted.  The author’s summary must precede the text of the full paper.  It should reach the addresses indicated in the Conference Announcements before the closing date

The summary preceding the text of the full paper and the summary sent in advance should be identical.

(*)  These Guidelines have been typed according to the approved format.

1.4.2 Full Papers

No full paper should exceed 3,000 words including tables, figures and graphs.  Each table, figure or graph is considered as being equal to the number of words which could have been typed in the equivalent space.  Any contribution in excess of this length may not be published in the Proceedings.  An Invited Paper should not exceed 9,000 words, including tables and illustrations.

1.5 Papers in final form

Papers are considered to have been submitted in the final form, fully checked for typographical and other errors.  Authorities of research institutions and other institutions must ensure that papers can be published without further approval or revision.

2.      TITLE

The title of each full paper whether offered or invited should be in capital letters and should be followed below by the names and full mailing address (es) of author (s), including postal codes, in lower case.  It should be as short as possible and adequately reflect the contents of the paper.  In cases where the place of work is not the present address of the author (s), the new mailing address (es) should be supplied as a footnote.

The title of each full paper must be identical to the title of the summary and remain unchanged.

3.      SECTIONAL HEADINGS

A paper which reports the results of research should be divided into the following sections:  (i)  Summary, (ii) Introduction, (iii) Materials and Methods, (iv) Results, (v) Discussion, (vi) Conclusions, (vii) Acknowledgements and (viii) References.

An author may combine Results with Discussion or omit one or more sections if not applicable e.g. a preliminary report on a research project which has not yet been concluded, need not include a section on Conclusions.

All other papers should also have logical subdivisions into appropriate sections.

Sectional headings should be centered and in capital letters while sub-sections (first order sub-headings) should begin in the margin and should be underlined while second-order subheadings should be spaced within the paragraph, e.g.

DISCUSSION

Foliage Production

    Leaf number          Variation in pod maturity exerted a significant effect on mean leaf per plant.

4.      FOOTNOTES

Footnotes in the text should be avoided as much as possible.  When they are necessary they should be inserted at the bottom of the appropriate page and separated from the text by a horizontal line.

5.      SCIENTIFIC NAMES

5.1 Scientific names in Latin should be italicized or underlined, e.g. Theobroma cacao L.

  Scientific names should always be supplied along with any common names used except for well known cases.  If a scientific name is repeated more than once, the generic name should be abbreviated and the authority’s name omitted, e.g. T. cacao.  For plants developed by breeding, use “cultivar” rather than “variety”.

5.2 Trade names

When used, trade names for chemicals should be accompanied by their active ingredients.

6.      UNITS OF MEASUREMENT

Only units of measurement conforming to the metric system should be used but other units of measurement could be inserted in parenthesis.

7.      ABBREVIATIONS

Authors should use standard abbreviations and symbols for units of measurement, e.g.

    Km     kilometer                   ha      hectare

    g       gram                          cm3     cubic centimeter

    J       Joule                          1x      1 ux

8.      ILLUSTRATIONS

8.1 Line drawings and graphs

 These must be drawn with black ink or light-blue tracing paper or feint blue-lined graph paper. Lettering should also be in black ink except for the legends (titles) which should be typed on a separate sheet.

 8.2    Photographs

 All photographs should be black and white, well-contrasted prints on grossly paper and of good quality. Colour photographs or slides will not appear in the Proceedings but can used in oral p[presentations. Photographs should not be bent or distorted at the time of mailing. Each photograph must be clearly identified on the back. If photographs are not clearly labelled, they risk omission from the Proceedings.

 Scale-marks should be added when necessary and prints should be trimmed to a minimum size, eliminating superfluous objects.

 8.3    Size

 The size of figures, graphs or line drawings and the lettering should be such thnat they can be reduced to a scale of say Ľ without loss of clarity and legibility. They should appear on one side of the page only. Excessively large diagrams (more than 21.0 cm x 29.7 cm size) are not acceptable.

 8.4    Legends

 Legends (titles) to figures, graphs, line drawings or photographs should be typed on separate sheets with their appropriate reference numbers. A typewritten list of the titles of all illustrations should also be supplied.

 Each figure, graph, line drawing or photograph should have the surname (s) of the author (s) written lightly but clearly in pencil at the back. Where an author has several illustrations accompanying more than one paper, the title of each paper should also be indicated at the back of each illustration, to avoid confusion.

 8.5    General

 Line drawings, graphs and photographs should be supplied separately, and attached to the full paper, with their positions shown in the text as follows:

9.      STATISTICS

In reporting analyses of data, place emphasis on the scientific results of interest. Statistical techniques should be selected to make efficient use of relevant data, but must be appropriate to design of experiments or surveys. The experimental design must be clearly described.

10.    TABLES

 Tables should have descriptive headings which are sufficiently complete to permit their comprehension without requiring ant reference to text. Units of measurements should be supplied at the top of the table or column.

 Units, symbols or abbreviations in the table should agree with those used in the text.

 Use a dash, -, when no observation was taken or was available and 0 for a zero reading or observations. Express values less than unity as 0.19 or 0,19 instead of .19.

 Instruction appearing under subsections 8.3, 8.4 and 8.5 also apply to tables. Tables should be typed on separate sheets with legends.

11.     LITERATURE CITATION

Refer in the text to author (year) or (author, year).  When papers are by more than two authors, all the names should be recorded on first mention; thereafter further reference should be to first author et al.

In review papers only, where the list of works reviewed is extensive, the literature may be numbered and work cited by number in the text.

Bibliographic references should be well verified.  Only those cited in the text should be included in the list of references.  References should be listed in alphabetical order of authors’ names and in order of dates of publication in the case of an author with more than one reference.  When more than one reference is quoted for a given year by the same author, the letters a, b, c, and so on should follow the year of publication, if possible in chronological order.  References should contain the essential information that enables the reader to locate them.

11.1 Papers from Journals and Bulletins

Papers from journals and bulletins should be referred to as follows: (a) surname(s) and initials of author(s), (b) year of publication, (c) title of article, (d) name of journal or bulletin, (e) the volume and (f) page numbers, e.g.

ENSISI, B. (1983)     The growth of the cocoa tree
(Theobroma cocoa L.)  Trop. Hort. 100, 1-5.

ALPHA, A. and ENSISI, B. (1983).   Cocoa growth
Rhythms.  Trop.  Hort.  100,  11-17.

11.2 Proceedings of Symposia, Conferences, Workshops, etc.

Papers from Proceedings of symposia, Conferences, Workshops, etc. should also specify the name, venue and year of the Symposium, Conference or Workshop, e.g.

      ENSISI, B (1981).   The growth of cocoa pod.
              Proc. 7th Int. Cocoa Res. Conf.,  Douala, 1979
              725-730.

11.3 Books

References to books should contain (a) the surname(s) of author(s) and initials (b) year of publication in parenthesis, (c) the title of book italicized or underlines, (d) the edition and volume number if applicable, (e) place of publication and publishers. e.g.

ENSISI, B.  (1983).     Cacao  4th ed. London:  ABC Publishers.

11.4 Anonymous references

Anonymous references should be treated similarly to the above categories except that the word ANON shall replace the name of the author(s).

11.5 Other references

Articles that are “in press” may be listed only if they have been accepted for publication, and the name of the publication that has accepted them must be provided.  Refer to unpublished data and personal communications parenthetically in the text, giving author’s initials as well as surname.

12.-    WORKING LANGUAGES

The working languages of the International Cocoa research Conferences are English, French, Portuguese and Spanish.

12.1 Full texts, summaries and discussions

Summaries will be distributed in the four languages.  Oral presentations as well as discussions will be interpreted simultaneously.

12.2 Proceedings

The proceedings will include the full texts of papers in the original language, preceded by summaries in the four working languages, as well as excerpts from the Conference discussions, also in the four languages.

13.-    ORAL PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION

Oral presentation and discussions should be in one of the working languages.

13.1 Person authorized to present a paper

All papers should be presented by their authors or if not possible, by a person with a complete grasp of the subject and capable of replying to questions put to him during the discussion.

13.2 Method and duration of presentation

In order to ensure the smooth running of the sessions, speakers should not exceed the 10 minutes allowed them and Invited Speakers the time limit of 30 minutes.  All speakers should prepare a written text of their oral presentation, containing the salient points in their paper and also explaining tables, slides, etc.

They should bring 8 copies of the Text of the Oral Presentation to facilitate simultaneous interpretation.  The preparation of this text is essential for the success of the Conference.  If possible author(s) should include a photocopy of any slides to be shown because the interpreters also have to interpret captions and content of the slides.

13.3 Word delivery rate

Word delivery rate should not exceed 100 words per minute.  Where papers contain complex mathematical equations and/or scientific names, speakers should deliver at a slower rate.

13.4 Slides

Only slides not larger than 5 cm x 5 cm can be used on projectors.  Slides are meant to clarify and abridge papers.  Illustrations which can be put on slides are: linear diagrams indicating trends and ratios, histograms, or drawings in perspective, showing essential characteristics, as well as photographs.  Tables are rarely understood by participants in the time they are projected.

The text on the slides should be as short as possible.  The characters should be of such size that even the participants at the back of the hall can read them.  Thirty-five letters, signs and spaces constitute the limit of legibility in the case of a line on a square slide (or of a line parallel to the longest side of a rectangular slide).  If a typewriter must be used to type the text of a diagram, do not use machines with narrow characters.  To be legible each line of the text must be separated from the others by a black space of one and a half lines.

A slide of 5 cm x 5 cm can be projected if one can read the text on it and can understand it when holding it 35 cm from the eyes.

14.-    OFFPRINTS

Each author is entitled to 25 offprints of his/her paper.  Where there is joint authorship the 25 offprints will go to the Senior Author who will share them with the other Authors.

15.-    POSTER SESSION

The International Organizing Committee may decide that some contributions are best presented by poster exhibits during Poster Sessions, and contributors will be advised accordingly well before the Conference. Author(s) may, however, elect to present their contribution as a poster exhibit.  Such a request is accepted by the organizers provided this preference is clearly stated on the author’s Summary when it is forwarded to the organizers.

Each poster exhibitor will be allocated a specified area of board.  Poster exhibits will be mounted on these boards.  Each author will be asked to attend his exhibit for a limited period at a specified time of a specified day.  He will be expected to answer questions put to him by participants.  Exhibits will be grouped according to sessions to which they refer and their titles will be listed at an appropriate location in the Conference Programme.

Each poster exhibit must carry the paper title and name(s) and address(es) of the author(s).  Photographs in colour or black and white, graphs, figures, maps and even models or pieces of apparatus can be mounted on boards.  The organizers will arrange suitable areas for the demonstration of large pieces of equipment.  Author(s) can offer duplicated or printed hand-outs, reprints and other information on the subject to their audience.  It is particularly helpful if author(s) can use material prepared, if possible, in at least two of the conference languages.  The organizers can accept no responsibility for making such translations. The final form can be as flexible as participants desire.

ADDENDA

In addition to the Guidelines to Authors, the following information is provided for the guidance of contributors.

A       CLASSIFICATION OF PAPERS

Papers submitted for presentation at the International Cocoa research Conference are examined by the International Organizing Committee (IOC) on the basis of their summaries at a meeting held 4 to 6 months before the date of the conference.  The author’s summary of each paper is carefully considered and fully discussed by the IOC to assess its scientific merit.  On the basis of this assessment, each paper is classified into one of the following categories:

    (1) oral presentation and publication in the Conference Proceedings;

or

    (2) presentation as a poster exhibit and publication in the Conference Proceedings;

or

    (3)     publication in the Conference Proceedings.

If, however, papers are not accepted, authors will be informed accordingly.

The number of papers submitted to the organizers is increasing and some limitation to the number of papers presented orally is essential to enable time to be available for discussion and for meetings of working groups, etc.  The fact that the IOC decides a paper should be presented at a poster session rather than orally may not necessarily reflect on the scientific merit of the papers, but rather more on its suitability for oral presentation.  For instance, some papers have a wealth of complex data, complicated drawings or very detailed methodology which can be more suitably presented at a poster session.

The organizers will inform authors in which of the above categories their papers have been placed to enable authors plan their presentations accordingly.

B       SLIDES

A well-known photographic company provides the following advice to those preparing slides for a multi-lingual audience when simultaneous interpretation is being utilized:

  1. Use 5.0 cm x 5.0 cm colour slides, i.e. 35 mm film.  These are effective, relatively easy to make and expensive.  Colour film can easily be used for copying black and white material.  Use a dark coloured background.  Slides are clearest if prepared with white or yellow letters on a blue background.  It is more restful on the eye and shows up dust and fingerprints less.
  2. Limit each slide to one main idea.  Use a slide series to progressively disclose information.  Use several simple slides rather than one complicated one.
  3. Reduce data to bare essentials; simplify captions; keep graphs simple; simplify drawings; present data in small groupings on a number of slides if necessary.
  4. Plan for maximum legibility.  No more than 15 – 20 words or 25 – 30 figures on each slide.  Include no more information than you will discuss.
  5. In graphs, make curves reasonably prominent.  Axes and grid lines should be clearly visible but relatively inconspicuous.  Graphs should not have more than three curves each.
  6. Plan your slides so that they clarify your talk rather than simply repeat visually what you are saying.
  7. Use duplicates if you need to refer to the same slides several different times in your talk.
  8. Plan your slides for a good visual space in your presentation.  Do not leave a slide on the screen after discussing its subject.

Typing within a template as shown on the left will, when copied on to 35 mm film, give a clear readable slide

  

 Overhead projectors are designed for use in front of small Audiences and the conference organizers therefore greatly Prefer the use of slides if possible, as described above.

 

Cocoa Producers’ Alliance
Lagos, Nigeria
February, 2000.

 

MODEL LAYOUT


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